• The article discusses the definition of poverty and how it is measured.
• It also looks at the various types of poverty, such as absolute poverty and relative poverty, and how these are measured.
• Finally, it examines the causes of poverty and the effects it has on individuals and societies.

Definition of Poverty

Poverty is a social condition characterized by inadequate or unequal access to resources, goods, services, and opportunities. It can be measured in terms of income inequality or lack of basic needs such as food, clothing, housing, education, healthcare, and sanitation.

Types Of Poverty

Poverty can be divided into two distinct categories: absolute poverty and relative poverty. Absolute poverty is defined as having insufficient resources to meet basic needs for survival such as food security, clean water access or safe shelter; whereas relative poverty is defined in terms of a person’s position within a country’s overall income distribution.

Causes Of Poverty

There are many factors that contribute to the causes of poverty including economic systems that fail to provide adequate opportunities for employment; gender inequality; discrimination based on race or ethnicity; conflict; natural disasters; climate change; corruption; poor governance; inadequate access to health care services or education; overpopulation in certain areas; population displacement due to war or persecution; lack of access to financial services; structural adjustments imposed by international financial institutions like the World Bank or IMF (International Monetary Fund); trade policies that hurt small farmers.

Effects Of Poverty

The effects of poverty are far-reaching and can have long-term consequences for individuals and societies alike. These effects include lower quality health care outcomes such as higher rates of infant mortality and malnutrition among children under five years old compared with their wealthier peers in wealthier countries with more developed economies; increased risk of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS due to limited access to essential medicines or treatments for other illnesses caused by inadequate nutrition or living conditions in overcrowded slums without proper sanitation facilities; greater vulnerability to environmental risks from natural disasters like floods , droughts , earthquakes , hurricanes ; psychological impacts like depression , anxiety , post-traumatic stress disorder ; educational disadvantages leading to lower levels of literacy ; decreased life expectancy ; increased crime rates due to desperation for basic necessities .


Poverty affects people around the world both directly through lack of resources needed for survival but also indirectly through its wider implications on health care outcomes , educational attainment , environmental risks and other aspects which all have an impact on society at large . It is therefore important that governments take measures both locally at home but also internationally through initiatives like foreign aid programmes – involving both public and private sector contributions – in order address this complex problem effectively .